Greek history begins around 2,000B.C. (during Egypt's Middle Kingdom). After several wars and invasions, the Dorians took over the land in 1,100B.C., and towns changed into city-states, divided by their geography. As city-states grew in size and influence, rivalry developed, but they eventually united in fear of the Persian invaders during the 5th century B.C. Having successfully protected their land from the Persians, the city-states agreed to combine and form a Delian League in order to prevent more invasions. Athens was made the head of the Delian League.
The prominent leader of the Greeks, Pericles, used money to restore Athens and encourage a period of economic growth and societal peace. In 431B.C., the Peloponnesian War against Pericles started, and the following year Pericles died, along with a third of the population of Athens, from a terrible plague. The Spartans defeated Athens, and a century of conflict followed. In 338B.C., Greece was conquered by Macedonia.