Napoleon was finally defeated at Waterloo in 1815 and later exiled to the island of Elba. He died in 1821, and France returned to the monarchy system (with some changes). Louis XVIII took power and reigned for a whole decade during the Bourbon Restoration, and it would not be until 1830 that the nation would rebel against its current absolute monarch, Charles X, and institute a constitutional monarchy. In 1848, revolution in France would break out again (and all across Europe), and the nation would elect Bonaparte's nephew and heir, Napoleon III, as president of the French Second Republic. Three years later, Napoleon III would establish the Second French Empire.